Четвертичные отложения и геоморфология Зеленого пояса Фенноскандии
Keywords: Quaternary deposits; relief; geomorphology; neotectonics; paleogeography
The article provides a brief description of the main genetic types of Quaternary deposits and landforms within the GBF, with respect to special features of the territory associated with a significant stretch from North to South. In terms of its geomorphological structure, the territory falls into four parts which differ significantly in relief structure and composition of Quaternary deposits. Glacial, glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine deposits of the last Scandinavian Late Valdai/Weichselian glaciations, with thickness ranging from 0 to 60 meters and mean values of 3-10 meters, prevail in the structure of the Quaternary cover. Holocene deposits are represented by peat, lacustrine, alluvial and seismo-gravita-tional sediments. The latter are developed locally within paleoseismic displacements. Continental ice was retreating from the study area from the end of the Alleröd (12.3-11.3 Ka B. P.) to the beginning of the Preboreal time (10-9.5 Ka B. P.), wherefore modern landforms were shaped by various processes at different times, leading to a high variety of genetic types of Quaternary deposits and landforms. Earthquakes occurred in some moving parts of the GBF territory in postglacial time as a result of glacial isostatic equilibrium, leaving behind numerous evidence of paleoseismic displacements. The unique geological nature monuments in each of the four parts require further detailed study. It is of high relevance in connection with the special interest in borderland and protected areas, the ongoing development of a number of environmental protection and natural heritage preservation measures.
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