Д.В. Панченко, П.И. Данилов, К.Ф. Тирронен, А. Паасиваара, Ю.А. Красовский.
Особенности распределения копытных млекопитающих в пределах Карельской части Зеленого пояса Фенноскандии
Keywords: human impact; distribution range; Green Belt of Fennoscandia; spatial distribution; ungulates, migration; abundance
The study of the distribution and abundance of ungulate mammals in the Karelian part of the Green Belt of Fennoscandia (GBF) showed that these characteristics are subject to significant influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. GBF territory is a complex set of landscapes belonging to northern, middle and partly southern taiga, shaping the distribution of ungulates within it. High, compared to the regional average, moose and wild boar track densities are recorded in the North-Western Ladoga region (Lahdenpohsky, Sortavalsky Districts). A large share of the wild forest reindeer population is concentrated in northern districts of the Republic of Karelia (Louhsky, Kalevalsky), including their border zone with Finland. One core area of this North European endemic has been preserved at the southern limit of its distribution range within GBF, in Muezersky District. Protected areas within GBF are essential for the conservation and restoration of the wild forest reindeer. Currently, human impact has the decisive importance for the populations of both hunted (moose, wild boar) and rare (wild forest reindeer, roe deer) species. Since the southern part of the republic is quite extensively used in agriculture, the wild boar abundance there is higher than in other parts of Karelia. Heavy logging in vast areas in the north alters wild forest reindeer habitats, which inevitably affects the movement and distribution of the animals, and can lead to a decline in their numbers. There are "boreal (ecological) wildlife corridors" in the study area. They secure the connection between animals living in Finland and Russia. They act as channels for the arrival of new species (roe deer, wild boar) and for seasonal movements of native species (moose, forest reindeer). Along with the positive aspects, the migratory activity of ungulates brings about the risk of disease spread (chronic wasting disease, African swine fever).
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